GIT – consists of a kernel, user-level tools, and container templates.

This guide tells how to the kernel and the tools on Debian Etch or Lenny/Squeeze.

For Squeeze, use the Lenny directions.

For Etch users, this document explains how to partially upgrade to Lenny and install from lenny repositories (use this options at your risk).


  • 1 Requirements
    • 1.1 Filesystems
    • 1.2 Repository setup (Etch only)
      • 1.2.1 1. Using repositories
      • 1.2.2 2. Using Debian repositories (upgrade to lenny)
  • 2 Kernel installation
    • 2.1 Wheezy and Lenny
    • 2.2 Etch
      • 2.2.1 1. Using openvz kernel repositories
        • Configuring the bootloader
        • Installing the user-level tools
      • 2.2.2 2 Using Debian lenny repositories
    • 2.3 Rebooting into OpenVZ kernel
    • 2.4 Confirm proper installation
  • 3 Configuring
    • 3.1 
    • 3.2 OS templates
  • 4 Additional User Tools
  • 5 Secure it
  • 6 Start it!
  • 7 Use it!



It’s recommended that you use a separate partition for container private directories (by default /var/lib/vz/private/<CTID>). The reason for this is that if you wish to use the OpenVZ per-container disk quota, you won’t be able to use usual disk quotas on the same partition. Bear in mind that “per-container quota” in this context includes not only pure per-container quota but also the usual disk quota used in container, not on the HN.

At the very least try to avoid using the partition for containers, because the user of a container will be able to overcome the 5% disk space barrier in some situations. If the HN partition is completely filled, it will break the system.

OpenVZ per-container disk quota is supported only for ext2/ext3 filesystems; therefore it makes sense to use one of these filesystems (ext3 is recommended) if you need per-container disk quota.

Repository setup (Etch only)

If you are using Debian Lenny, this step in no longer required. Openvz kernel packages and tools are available on main repository.

1. Using repositories

At the moment two different repositories are online at

by Ola Lundqvist <>
(OpenVZ kernels only)
by Thorsten Schifferdecker <>
(Mirror of OpenVZ Repository from


Yellowpin.svg Note: The next steps use the repository at; the actual OpenVZ Tools for Debian exist only as unstable builds, see


Yellowpin.svg Note: By default, on systems root tasks are executed with sudo

This can be done via the following commands, as root or as privileged “sudo” user

# echo -e "\ndeb etch openvz" >> /etc/apt/sources.list
# wget -q -O- | apt-key add - && apt-get update

2. Using Debian repositories (upgrade to lenny)

There is even a lenny repository with kernel 2.6.28. Use it at your own risk!

Add lenny repositories to your /etc/apt/sources.list

deb http://DEBIAN-MIRROR/debian/ testing main
deb http://DEBIAN-MIRROR/debian-security/ testing/updates main

Enlarge apt-cache adding to /etc/apt/apt.conf this line:

APT::Cache-Limit "100000000";

Give etch package priority over lenny packages. Edit /etc/apt/preferences and set like this:

Package: *
Pin: release a=etch
Pin-Priority: 700

Package: *
Pin: release a=lenny
Pin-Priority: 650

Then apt-get update && apt-get dist-upgrade to upgrade to lenny.

Kernel installation

Wheezy and Lenny

Yellowpin.svg Note: The best kernel to use is RHEL6-based. Please see Install_kernel_from_RPM_on_Debian_6.0


1. Using openvz kernel repositories

Yellowpin.svg Note: In case you want to recompile the OpenVZ kernel yourself on Debian, see Compiling the OpenVZ kernel (the Debian way).

First, you need to choose what kernel you want to install.

OpenVZ Kernel list built with kernel config from
Kernel Description Hardware Debian Architecture
ovzkernel-2.6.18 uniprocessor up to 4GB of RAM i386 and amd64
ovzkernel-2.6.18-smp symmetric multiprocessor up to 4 GB of RAM i386 and amd64
ovzkernel-2.6.18-enterprise SMP + PAE support + 4/4GB split up to 64 GB of RAM i386 only
OpenVZ Kernel list built with official Debian kernel config and OpenVZ Settings
Kernel Description Hardware Debian Architecture
fzakernel-2.6.18-686 uni- and multiprocessor up to 4GB of RAM i386
fzakernel-2.6.18-686-bigmem symmetric multiprocessor up to 64 GB of RAM i386
fzakernel-2.6.18-amd64 uni- and multiprocessor amd64
 # apt-get install <kernel>
Configuring the bootloader

In case GRUB is used as the boot loader, it will be configured automatically, or execute update-grub; lines similar to these will be added to the /boot/grub/menu.lst file:

  title           Debian GNU/Linux, kernel 2.6.18-ovz-028stab051.1-686
  root            (hd0,1)
  kernel          /vmlinuz-2.6.18-ovz-028stab051.1-686 root=/dev/sda5 ro vga=791
  initrd          /initrd.img-2.6.18-ovz-028stab051.1-686
Yellowpin.svg Note: per default on debian/ubuntu, a 2.6.22 kernel will boot before a 2.6.18, please check manually the grub boot order. See man update-grub for more details

Installing the user-level tools

OpenVZ needs some user-level tools installed. Those are:

A utility to control OpenVZ containers (create, destroy, start, stop, set parameters etc.)
A utility to manage quotas for containers. Mostly used indirectly (by vzctl).
 # [sudo] apt-get install vzctl vzquota

2 Using Debian lenny repositories

If you upgrade to lenny, you can search openvz kernel and can install with:

apt-get install linux-image-openvz-686

this will install latest kernel and all required packages like:

apt-get install iproute libatm1 linux-image-2.6.26-1-openvz-686 linux-image-openvz-686 rsync vzctl vzquota libcgroup-dev

and will arrange grub bootloader properly.

Rebooting into OpenVZ kernel

Warning.svg Warning: Before you restart your Server, verify that your system has all needed modules enabled in order to boot your harddisk (e.g. hardware modules, system(s), lvm2 etc). You may need an INITRD (initramdisk) or to compile needed kernel modules statically.

Now reboot the machine and choose the OpenVZ Linux Kernel on the boot loader menu. If the OpenVZ kernel has been booted successfully, proceed to installing the user-level tools for OpenVZ.

Confirm proper installation

1. Kernel:

 # uname -r

2. Openvz kernel facility:

 # ps ax | grep vz
 2349 ?        S      0:00 [vzmond]

3. A network interface for containers:

 # ifconfig
 venet0    Link encap:UNSPEC  HWaddr 00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00  
           RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
           TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
           collisions:0 txqueuelen:0 
           RX bytes:0 (0.0 B)  TX bytes:0 (0.0 B)



There are a number of kernel parameters that should be set for OpenVZ to work correctly. These parameters are stored in /etc/sysctl.conf file. Here is the relevant part of the file; please edit it accordingly.

Yellowpin.svg Note: vzctl version from debian-systs, automatically inserts these options at the last of /etc/sysctl.conf, except for net.ipv4.ip_forward


# On Hardware Node we generally need
# packet forwarding enabled and proxy arp disabled


# Enables source route verification

# Enables the magic-sysrq key

# TCP Explict Congestion Notification

# we do not want all our interfaces to send redirects

 # [sudo] sysctl -p
Yellowpin.svg Note: You can make a symlink from /var/lib/vz to /vz as backwardcompatibility to OpenVZ as installed in other distributions (Debian vz root directory is /var/lib/vz to be FHS-compliant.

# [sudo] ln -s /var/lib/vz /vz

OS templates

Yellowpin.svg Note: Support of OS templates on 64 bit hosts is somewhat limited for the time being, so that not all tools or features are available – please see Making template tools to work on x86_64 and Install OpenVZ on a x86 64 system Centos-Fedora for additional details and information on possible workarounds

To install a container, you need OS template(s).

Precreated templates can be found here and here.

You can create your own templates, see Debian template creationUbuntu Gutsy template creation and Category: Templates.

Yellowpin.svg Note: Setup your prefered standard OS Template : edit the /etc/vz/vz.conf

# [sudo] apt-get install vzctl-ostmpl-debian-5.0-i386-minimal

Additional User Tools

A set of utilities to provide system information (vzps and vztop)
A utility to backup and restore container.
 # [sudo] apt-get install vzprocps vzdump

On Debian squeeze, vzdump seems packaged in standard aptline. For lenny, See Backup_of_a_running_container_with_vzdump

Secure it

If you want to secure your container with individual firewall rules (instead or additionally to securing the host node) then you must run inside the container. This works slightly different than on a physical server. So make sure that you check that rules are indeed applied as expected inside the container.

Iptables modules required by the container must be specified in the general vz.conf file or the vzXXX.conf file of the container.

Add the following line into vz.conf to activate the respective iptables modules for all containers.

IPTABLES="ip_tables ipt_REJECT ipt_tos ipt_limit ipt_multiport iptable_filter iptable_mangle ipt_TCPMSS ipt_tcpmss ipt_ttl
ipt_length ip_conntrack ip_conntrack_ftp ip_conntrack_irc ipt_LOG ipt_conntrack ipt_helper ipt_state iptable_nat ip_nat_ftp ip_nat_irc ipt_TOS"

[Configure]] your iptable rules inside the container.

Warning.svg Warning: Note that iptables rules inside the container are not applied automatically as on a physical server by starting the iptables module! Follow the instructions below

To make sure the iptables rules are applied on a startup/reboot we’ll create a new file:

nano /etc/network/if-pre-up.d/iptables

Add these lines to it:

/sbin/iptables-restore < /etc/iptables.up.rules

The file needs to be executable so change the permissions:

chmod +x /etc/network/if-pre-up.d/iptables

Start iptables

/etc/init.d/iptables start

If the startup shows errors then you have probably not activated the needed iptables modules. See above.

Check inside the container that your iptables rules are indeed applied:

iptables -L

If the rules do not show up as you would expect on a physical server then you might not have activated the needed iptables modules.

Start it!

# [sudo] /etc/init.d/vz start

This does not make the vz system automatically start at boot time. For automatic start:

# [sudo] update-rc.d vz defaults 98

Use it!

After installing the OpenVZ kernel, user tools and a minimal OS template to create a first container and do some basic operations in OpenVZ environment. Read the download:doc/OpenVZ-Users-Guide.pdf, browse this wiki.

Thảo luận bài viết tại forum :

Print Friendly



Bài viết liên quan