Firewalld is the new userland interface in RHEL/ 7. It replaces the iptables interface and connects to the netfilter kernel code. It mainly improves the security rules management by allowing configuration changes without stopping the current connections.

To know if Firewalld is running, type:

# systemctl status firewalld
firewalld.service - firewalld - dynamic firewall daemon
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/firewalld.service; enabled)
   Active: active (running) since Tue 2014-06-17 11:14:49 CEST; 5 days ago
   ...

or alternatively:

# firewall-cmd --state
running

Note: If Firewalld is not running, the command displays not running.

If you’ve got several network interfaces in IPv4, you will have to activate  forwarding.
To do that, paste the following line into the /etc/sysctl.conf file:

net.ipv4.ip_forward=1

Then, activate the configuration:

# sysctl -p

You can also look at the iptables rules created by Firewalld with the iptables-save command.

Zone Management

Also, a new concept of zone appears: all network interfaces can be located in the same default zone or divided into different ones according to the levels of trust defined. In the latter case, this allows to restrict traffic based on origin zone .
Note: Without any configuration, everything is done by default in the public zone. If you’ve got more than one network interface or use sources (see Source management section below), you will be able to restrict traffic between zones.

To get the default zone, type:

# firewall-cmd --get-default-zone
public

To get the list of zones where you’ve got network interfaces or sources assigned to, type:

# firewall-cmd --get-active-zones
public
  interfaces: eth0

Note: You can have more than one active zone at a time.

To get the list of all the available zones, type:

# firewall-cmd --get-zones
block dmz drop external home internal public trusted work

To change the default zone to home permanently, type:

# firewall-cmd --set-default-zone=home
success

Note: This information is stored in the /etc/firewalld/firewalld.conf file.

Network interfaces can be assigned to a zone in a permanent way.
To permanently assign the eth0 network interface to the internal zone (a file called internal.xmlis created in the /etc/firewalld/zones directory), type:

# firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=internal --change-interface=eth0
success
# nmcli con show | grep eth0
System eth0  4de55c95-2368-429b-be65-8f7b1a357e3f  802-3-ethernet  eth0
# nmcli con mod "System eth0" connection.zone internal
# nmcli con up "System eth0"
Connection successfully activated (D-Bus active path: /org/freedesktop/NetworkManager/ActiveConnection/1)

Note: This operation can also be done by editing the /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0file and add ZONE=internal followed by # nmcli con reload

To know which zone is associated with the eth0 interface, type:

# firewall-cmd --get-zone-of-interface=eth0
internal

To get the permanent configuration of the public zone, type:

# firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --list-all
public (default, active)
  interfaces: eth0
  sources: 
  services: dhcpv6-client ssh
  ports: 
  masquerade: no
  forward-ports: 
  icmp-blocks: 
  rich rules: 

It is also possible to create new zones. To create a new zone (here test), type:

# firewall-cmd --permanent --new-zone=test
success
# firewall-cmd --reload
success

Note: Only permanent zones can be created.

Source Management

A zone can be bound to a network interface (see above) and/or to a network addressing (called here a source).
Any network packet entering in the network stack is associated with a zone.
The association is done according to the following pattern:
– is the packet coming from a source already bound to a zone? (if yes, it is associated with this zone),
– if not, is the packet coming from a network interface already bound to a zone? (if yes, it is associated with this zone),
– if not, the packet is associated with the default zone.

This way, multiple zones can be defined even on a server with only one network interface!

Caution: To get this feature, Firewalld relies on NetworkManager . This means that if you plan to stop NetworkManager for any reason (for example when building a KVM host), you will have to stop Firewalld and use Iptables instead!
Note: With the RHEL / Centos 7.3 release, Firewalld robustness has been improved in regard to NetworkManager (see details here).

To add a source (here 192.168.2.0/24) to a zone (here trustedpermanently, type:

# firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=trusted --add-source=192.168.2.0/24
success
# firewall-cmd --reload
success

Note1: Use the –remove-source option to delete a previous assigned source.
Note2: Use the –change-source option to move the source to the new specified zone.
Note3: If you want to temporarily add a source to a zone, don’t use the –permanent option and don’t reload the firewall configuration. If you reload the firewall configuration, this will cancel all the operation.
Note4: You can also make some changes and when you like your new configuration, have it become your permanent configuration with the firewall-cmd –runtime-to-permanent command.

With the RHEL / Centos 7.3 release, you can add a source based on a MAC address (here 00:11:22:33:44:55) to a zone (here trustedpermanently:

firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=trusted --add-source=00:11:22:33:44:55
success
# firewall-cmd --reload
success

With the RHEL / Centos 7.3 release, you can create an ipset (a set of IP addresses or networks, see below) and add a source based on it:

# firewall-cmd --permanent --new-ipset=iplist --type=hash:ip
success
# firewall-cmd --reload
success
# firewall-cmd --ipset=iplist --add-entry=192.168.1.11
success
# firewall-cmd --ipset=iplist --add-entry=192.168.1.12
success
# firewall-cmd --permanent--zone=trusted --add-source=ipset:iplist
success
# firewall-cmd --reload
success

To get the list of the sources currently bound to a zone (here trusted), type:

# firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=trusted --list-sources
192.168.2.0/24 00:11:22:33:44:55 ipset:iplist

Note: Remove the –permanent option if you only want to display temporary settings.

To keep track of your configuration (active zones are zones that have a binding to an interface or source), type:

# firewall-cmd --get-active-zones
public
  interfaces: eth0
trusted
  sources: 192.168.2.0/24

As an exemple of source management, let’s assume you want to only allow connections to your server from a specific IP address (here 1.2.3.4/32).

# firewall-cmd --zone=internal --add-service=ssh --permanent
success
# firewall-cmd --zone=internal --add-source=1.2.3.4/32 --permanent
success
# firewall-cmd --zone=public --remove-service=ssh --permanent
success
# firewall-cmd --reload
success

 

With RHEL/ Centos 7.3, a new option called –info-zone is available.
To get the detail of a zone called public, type:

# firewall-cmd --info-zone=public
public (active)
target: default
icmp-block-inversion: no
interfaces: eth0
sources:
services: dhcpv6-client ssh
ports:
protocols:
masquerade: no
forward-ports:
sourceports:
icmp-blocks:
rich rules:

Note: You can also add the –permanent option.

Service Management

After assigning each network interface to a zone, it is now possible to add services to each zone.
To allow the http service permanently in the internal zone, type:

# firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=internal --add-service=http
success
# firewall-cmd --reload
success

Note1: Type –remove-service=http to deny the http service.
Note2: The firewall-cmd –reload command is necessary to activate the change. Contrary to the –complete-reload option, current connections are not stopped.
Note3: If you only want to temporarily add a service, don’t use the –permanent option and don’t reload the firewall configuration. If you reload the firewall configuration, you cancel all the operation.

If you want to temporary add several services (here httphttps, and dns) at the same time in the internal zone, type:

# firewall-cmd --zone=internal --add-service={http,https,dns}
success

To get the list of services in the default zone, type:

# firewall-cmd --list-services
dhcpv6-client ssh

Note: To get the list of the services in a particular zone, add the –zone= option.

With RHEL / Centos 7.3, a new option called –info-service is available.
To get some information about the  service, type:

# firewall-cmd --info-service=ftp
ftp
  ports: 21/tcp
  protocols:
  source-ports:
  modules: nf_conntrack_ftp
  destination:

Note: You can also add the –permanent option.

Firewall Services Configuration

With the Firewalld package, the firewall configuration of the main services (ftp, , etc) comes in the /usr/lib/firewalld/services directory. But it is still possible to add new ones in the /etc/firewalld/services directory. Also, if files exist at both locations for the same service, the file in the /etc/firewalld/services directory takes precedence.

For example, it is the case of the  service. There is no firewall configuration associated.
Create the /etc/firewalld/services/haproxy.xml and paste the following lines:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<service>
 <short>HAProxy</short>
 <description>HAProxy load-balancer</description>
 <port protocol="tcp" port="80"/>
</service>

Note: You can use the firewall-cmd –permanent –new-service=haproxy command to quickly create a configuration file skeleton.

Assign the correct SELinux context and file permissions to the haproxy.xml file:

# cd /etc/firewalld/services
# restorecon haproxy.xml
# chmod 640 haproxy.xml

Add the HAProxy service to the default zone permanently and reload the firewall configuration:

# firewall-cmd --permanent --add-service=haproxy
success
# firewall-cmd --reload
success

Note: According to Bert Van Vreckem, it is possible to go quicker by using the command history (see details here):

# firewall-cmd --add-service=haproxy
success
# firewall-cmd --add-service=haproxy --permanent
success

In RHEL / Centos 7.0 (Firewalld v0.3.9.7), there were 47 firewall services configured: amanda-clientbaculabacula-clientdhcpdhcpv6dhcpv6-clientdnsftphigh-availabilityhttphttpsimapsippipp-clientipseckerberoskpasswdldapldapslibvirtlibvirt-tlsmdnsmountdms-wbtnfsntpopenvpnpmcdpmproxypmwebapipmwebapispop3sproxy-dhcpradiusrpc-bindsamba-clientsmtp, sshtelnettftptftp-clienttransmission-clientvnc-serverwbem-https.
In RHEL / Centos 7.1 (Firewalld v0.3.9.11), the RH-Satellite-6 service was added.
In RHEL / Centos 7.2 (Firewalld v0.3.9.14), the freeipa-ldapsfreeipa-ldapfreeipa-replicationiscsi-targetrsyncd and vdsm services were added.
In RHEL / Centos 7.3 (Firewalld v0.4.3.2), the amanda-k5-clientcephceph-mon-dropbox-lansyncimapkadminmoshpop3privoxyptppulseaudiopuppetmastersanesmtpssnmpsnmptrapsquidsynergysyslogsyslog-tlstinctor-socksxmpp-boshxmpp-clientxmpp-local and xmpp-server services have been added for a total of 81services.

Port Management

Port management follows the same model as service management.

To allow the 443/tcp port temporarily in the internal zone, type:

# firewall-cmd --zone=internal --add-port=443/tcp
success

Note1: To make the configuration permanent, add the –permanent option and reload the firewall configuration.
Note2: Type –remove-port=443/tcp to deny the port.

To get the list of ports currently open in the internal zone, type:

# firewall-cmd --zone=internal --list-ports
443/tcp

Note: To only get the list of ports permanently open, add the –permanent option. Here, you will not get anything.

Rich Rules

As the syntax used by the rich rules are somehow difficult to remember, keep in mind the man firewalld.richlanguage command and the Example section at the end.

Here is the format of a rich rule:

# firewall-cmd --add-rich-rule 'rule ...'

To allow all connections from 192.168.2.2, type:

# firewall-cmd --add-rich-rule 'rule family="ipv4" source address="192.168.2.2" log accept'

Note1: The log option writes coming packets into the /var/log/messages file.
Note2: Use the –remove-rich-rule option instead of the –add-rich-rule option if you want to delete an already existing rule.

To list the rich rules set in the default zone, type:

# firewall-cmd --list-all
public (active)
  target: default
  icmp-block-inversion: no
  interfaces: eth0
  sources:
  services: dhcpv6-client ssh
  ports:
  protocols:
  masquerade: no
  forward-ports:
  sourceports:
  icmp-blocks:
  rich rules:
        rule family="ipv4" source address="192.168.2.2" log accept

Direct Rules

It is still possible to set specific rules by using the direct mode (here to open the tcp port 9000) that by-passes the Firewalld interface:

# firewall-cmd --direct --add-rule ipv4 filter INPUT 0 -p tcp --dport 9000 -j ACCEPT
success

Note1: This example has been borrowed from Khosro Taraghi’s blog.
Note2: Use the same command with the –remove-rule instead of –add-rule to delete the rule.
Note3: The configuration is temporary except if you add the –permanent option just after the –direct option.
Note4: It is not necessary to reload the firewall configuration, all commands are directlyactivated.

To display all the direct rules added, type:

# firewall-cmd --direct --get-all-rules

Note1: For information, the configuration is written into the /etc/firewalld/direct.xml file.
Note2: Direct rules are not part of the RHCSA/RHCE exam objectives.

IP Set Management

With the RHEL / Centos 7.3 comes the ability to create ipsets. An ipset is a set of IP addresses or networks. The different categories belong to hash:ip or hash:net.

To create a permanent IPv4 ipset containing two IP addresses and drop packets coming from these addresses, type:

# firewall-cmd --permanent --new-ipset=blacklist --type=hash:ip
success
# firewall-cmd --reload
success
# firewall-cmd --ipset=blacklist --add-entry=192.168.1.11
success
# firewall-cmd --ipset=blacklist --add-entry=192.168.1.12
success
# firewall-cmd --add-rich-rule='rule source ipset=blacklist drop'
success

Note: Add –option=family=inet6 to create an IPv6 ipset.

To get the content of the blacklist ipset, type:

# firewall-cmd --info-ipset=blacklist
blacklist
type: hash:ip
options:
entries: 192.168.1.11 192.168.1.12

To remove the 192.168.1.12 entry from the blacklist ipset, type:

# firewall-cmd --ipset=blacklist --remove-entry=192.168.1.12
success
# firewall-cmd --ipset=blacklist --get-entries
192.168.1.11

To create a permanent IPv4 ipset containing two networks, type:

# firewall-cmd --permanent --new-ipset=netlist
success
# firewall-cmd --reload
success
# firewall-cmd --ipset=netlist --add-entry=192.168.1.0/24
success
# firewall-cmd --ipset=netlist --add-entry=192.168.2.0/24
success
# firewall-cmd --info-ipset=netlist
netlist
 type: hash:net
 options: 
 entries: 192.168.1.0/24 192.168.2.0/24

To remove the netlist ipset, type: 
# firewall-cmd --permanent --delete-ipset=netlist
success
# firewall-cmd --reload
success
# firewall-cmd --get-ipsets
blacklist

It is also possible to  the content of an ipset from a file (--add-entries-from-file=file option) or store it with the name ipset in the /etc/firewalld/ipsets/ipset.xml
or /usr/lib/firewalld/ipsets/ipset.xml files according to the following format:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<ipset type="hash:ip">
  <short>My Ipset</short>
  <description>description</description>
  <entry>192.168.1.11</entry>
  <entry>192.168.1.12</entry>
</ipset>

To load this ipset, type:

# firewall-cmd --reload

Masquerading

If your firewall is your network gateway and you don’t want everybody to know your internal addresses, you can set up two zones, one called internal, the other external, and configure masquerading on the external zone. This way, all packets will get your firewall ip address as source address.

To set up masquerading on the external zone in a temporary way, type:

# firewall-cmd --zone=external --add-masquerade
success

Note1: To remove masquerading, use the –remove-masquerade option.
Note2: To know if masquerading is active in a zone, use the –query-masquerade option.
Note3: To get the configuration permanent, add the –permanent option and reload the firewall configuration.

Port Forwarding

Port forwarding is a way to forward inbound network traffic for a specific port to another internal address or an alternative port.

Caution: Port forwarding requires masquerading (source). This point is a classical mistake made during the RHCE exam.

So, you need to enable masquerading before anything else:

# firewall-cmd --zone=external --add-masquerade
success

If you want all packets intended for port 22 to be now forwarded to port tcp 3753 temporarily, type:

# firewall-cmd --zone=external --add-forward-port=port=22:proto=tcp:toport=3753
success

Note1: To remove port forwarding, use the –remove-forward-port option.
Note2: To know if port forwarding is active in a zone, use the –query-forward-port option.
Note3: If you want to make the configuration permanent, add the –permanent option and reload the firewall configuration.

Also, if you want to define the destination ip address, this time in a permanent way, type:

# firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=external --add-forward-port=port=22:proto=tcp:toport=3753:toaddr=10.0.0.1
success
# firewall-cmd --reload
success

Special Modules

Sometimes it is required to download specific modules. Instead of using a rc.local file, it is better to notify Firewalld through the /etc/modules-load.d directory.
In this example we want to add the ip_nat_ftp and ip_conntrack_ftp modules to follow ftpconnections.
We only need to choose a filename (here firewall_ftp.conf) and type these instructions:

# echo ip_nat_ftp > /etc/modules-load.d/firewall_ftp.conf
# echo ip_conntrack_ftp >> /etc/modules-load.d/firewall_ftp.conf

Offline Configuration

In some cases (installations through Anaconda or Kickstart for example), you need to set up firewall rules when Firewalld is not running. The firewall-offline-cmd command has just been created for this purpose.
For instance, to open the tcp port 22, you would type in the /etc/sysconfig/iptables file:

-A INPUT -p tcp -m state --state NEW -m tcp --dport 22 -j ACCEPT

Instead, you can now execute the following command:

# firewall-offline-cmd --direct --add-rule ipv4 filter INPUT 0 -p tcp -m state --state NEW -m tcp --dport 22 -j ACCEPT

Configuration Backup

To store the current configuration into files, type:

# iptables -S > firewalld_rules_ipv4
# ip6tables -S > firewalld_rules_ipv6

Debugging Tips

To better understand how Firewalld works, assign the ‘–debug’ value to the FIREWALLD_ARGS variable in the /etc/sysconfig/firewalld file:

# firewalld command line args
# possile values: --debug
FIREWALLD_ARGS='--debug'

Restart the Firewalld daemon:

# systemctl restart firewalld

Note: Messages will be written into the /var/log/firewalld file.

Also, with the RHEL / Centos 7.3 release comes the LogDenied directive in the /etc/firewalld/firewalld.conf file.
This directive adds logging rules right before reject and drop rules in the INPUTFORWARD and OUTPUT chains for the default rules and also final reject and drop rules in zones.
Possible values are: allunicastbroadcastmulticast and off (value by default).

Reload the Firewalld configuration:

# firewall-cmd --reload

Note: Messages will be written into the /var/log/messages file. If you also want messages to be written in a file called /var/log/custom.log, edit the /etc/rsyslog.conf file, add the line kern.warning /var/log/custom.log and restart the rsyslog configuration with # systemctl restart rsyslog

Print Friendly, PDF & Email

Comments

comments

Bài viết liên quan