GIT – vnStat is a console-based network traffic monitor. It keeps a log of hourly, daily and monthly network traffic for the selected interface(s). 

However, it isn’t a packet sniffer. The traffic information is analyzed from the proc(5) and sys filesystems depending on availability. That way vnStat can be used even without permissions on most systems.

Step #1: Update Ports Tree

You must update port tree by typing the following portsnap :
# portsnap fetch update

Step #2: vnStat

Type the following command to find out exact port location:
# cd /usr/ports
# whereis vnstat

Sample outputs:

/usr/ports/net/vnstat

Install the vnstat, run:
# cd /usr/ports/net/vnstat
# make install clean
# rehash

Alternatively, you can install the binary package using the pkg_add command, enter:
# pkg_add -r -v vnstat
Sample outputs:

scheme:   []
user:     []
password: []
host:     [..org]
port:     [0]
document: [/pub//ports/amd64/packages-8.0-release/Latest/vnstat.tbz]
---> ftp..org:21
looking up ftp..org
connecting to ftp..org:21
<<< 220 ftp.beastie.tdk.net FTP server (Version 6.00LS) ready.
>>> USER anonymous
<<< 331 Guest login ok, send your email address as password.
>>> PASS root@b1.simplyguide.org
<<< 230 Guest login ok, access restrictions apply.
>>> PWD
<<< 257 "/" is current directory.
>>> CWD pub//ports/amd64/packages-8.0-release/Latest
<<< 250 CWD command successful.
>>> MODE S
<<< 200 MODE S accepted.
>>> TYPE I
<<< 200 Type set to I.
setting passive mode
>>> PASV
<<< 227 Entering Passive Mode (87,51,34,132,212,201)
opening data connection
initiating transfer
>>> RETR vnstat.tbz
<<< 150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for 'vnstat.tbz' (96232 bytes).
Fetching ftp://ftp..org/pub//ports/amd64/packages-8.0-release/Latest/vnstat.tbz...Waiting for final status
<<< 226 Transfer complete.
x +CONTENTS
x +COMMENT
x +DESC
x +DISPLAY
x +MTREE_DIRS
x bin/vnstat
x sbin/vnstatd
....
...
###########################################################################
vnstat has been installed.
This port neeeds a cron entry. Please copy the contents of:
/usr/local/share/doc/vnstat/vnstat-cron to your . A Sample
configuration file has be installed in /usr/local/etc/
For more information about vnStat use "man vnstat" or visit:
http://humdi.net/vnstat/
###########################################################################

Step #3: Configure vnStat

Now, vnstat has been installed. However, you need to configure /usr/local/etc/vnstat.conf file, enter:
# cp /usr/local/etc/vnstat.conf.sample /usr/local/etc/vnstat.conf
# vi /usr/local/etc/vnstat.conf

Set default interface

Interface "em0"

Set maximum bandwidth (Mbit) for all interfaces, use 0 to feature. In this example, set to 100Mbit:

MaxBandwidth 100

Save and close the file.

Step #3.1: Set vnStat cron job

You need to collect network stats using a cron job, enter:
# crontab -e
Append the following cronjob enter:

# run vnstat update every 5 minutes if installed
*/5 *   * * *   if [ -x /usr/local/bin/vnstat ] && [ `ls -l /var/db/vnstat/ | wc -l` -ge 1 ]; then /usr/local/bin/vnstat -u; fi

Save and close the file. Finally, create directory, enter:
# mkdir /var/db/vnstat

Step #3.2: Create Interface Specific Stats

Type the following command:

vnstat -u -i interfaceName

In this example, set em0 and em1, enter:
# vnstat -u -i em0
# vnstat -u -i em1

Sample outputs:

Error: Unable to read database "/var/db/vnstat/em1".
Info: -> A new database has been created.

How Do I View Network Traffic?

Simply type the vnstat command, run:
# vnstat
Sample outputs:

                      rx      /      tx      /     total    /   estimated
 em1:
       Nov '09      2.97 GiB  /   56.38 GiB  /   59.35 GiB
       Dec '09     35.29 MiB  /  604.47 MiB  /  639.76 MiB  /   20.71 GiB
     yesterday     39.43 MiB  /  418.21 MiB  /  457.64 MiB
         today     35.29 MiB  /  604.47 MiB  /  639.76 MiB  /     683 MiB
 em0:
       Nov '09    205.19 MiB  /  134.89 MiB  /  340.07 MiB
       Dec '09      1.53 MiB  /     938 KiB  /    2.45 MiB  /       0 KiB
     yesterday      1.56 MiB  /     769 KiB  /    2.31 MiB
         today      1.53 MiB  /     938 KiB  /    2.45 MiB  /      --

See Daily Traffic, Enter:

vnstat -d
Sample outputs:

 em1  /  daily
         day         rx      |     tx      |    total    |   avg. rate
     ------------------------+-------------+-------------+---------------
      11/20/09     44.69 MiB |  654.44 MiB |  699.13 MiB |   66.29 kbit/s
      11/21/09     30.52 MiB |  322.34 MiB |  352.86 MiB |   33.46 kbit/s
      11/22/09     31.04 MiB |  313.65 MiB |  344.70 MiB |   32.68 kbit/s
      11/23/09    208.52 MiB |    7.04 GiB |    7.24 GiB |  703.35 kbit/s
      11/24/09     57.55 MiB |    1.00 GiB |    1.06 GiB |  102.95 kbit/s
      11/25/09    710.73 MiB |  705.73 MiB |    1.38 GiB |  134.30 kbit/s
      11/26/09     65.78 MiB |    1.52 GiB |    1.59 GiB |  154.01 kbit/s
      11/27/09     45.24 MiB |  641.35 MiB |  686.59 MiB |   65.10 kbit/s
      11/28/09     95.72 MiB |  280.59 MiB |  376.32 MiB |   35.68 kbit/s
      11/29/09     80.17 MiB |    1.77 GiB |    1.85 GiB |  179.37 kbit/s
      11/30/09    271.64 MiB |   10.62 GiB |   10.89 GiB |    1.06 Mbit/s
      12/01/09     44.13 MiB |  368.22 MiB |  412.35 MiB |   39.10 kbit/s
      12/02/09     45.46 MiB |  699.37 MiB |  744.83 MiB |   70.62 kbit/s
      12/03/09     54.18 MiB |    1.01 GiB |    1.06 GiB |  103.05 kbit/s
      12/04/09     44.90 MiB |  668.54 MiB |  713.43 MiB |   67.64 kbit/s
      12/05/09     28.79 MiB |  325.02 MiB |  353.81 MiB |   33.55 kbit/s
      12/06/09     55.02 MiB |    1.35 GiB |    1.41 GiB |  136.60 kbit/s
      12/07/09    276.27 MiB |   10.73 GiB |   11.00 GiB |    1.07 Mbit/s
      12/08/09     38.15 MiB |  343.64 MiB |  381.79 MiB |   36.20 kbit/s
      12/09/09     43.77 MiB |  625.01 MiB |  668.78 MiB |   63.41 kbit/s
      12/10/09     36.95 MiB |  348.90 MiB |  385.84 MiB |   36.58 kbit/s
      12/11/09     54.36 MiB |  320.11 MiB |  374.47 MiB |   35.51 kbit/s
      12/12/09    138.14 MiB |    1.41 GiB |    1.55 GiB |  150.33 kbit/s
      12/13/09     32.60 MiB |  410.92 MiB |  443.52 MiB |   42.05 kbit/s
      12/14/09    280.86 MiB |   10.51 GiB |   10.79 GiB |    1.05 Mbit/s
      12/15/09     49.07 MiB |  717.77 MiB |  766.83 MiB |   72.71 kbit/s
      12/16/09     39.99 MiB |  356.22 MiB |  396.22 MiB |   37.57 kbit/s
      12/17/09     54.12 MiB |  743.57 MiB |  797.69 MiB |   75.63 kbit/s
      12/18/09     39.43 MiB |  418.21 MiB |  457.64 MiB |   43.39 kbit/s
      12/19/09     35.33 MiB |  604.59 MiB |  639.92 MiB |   64.72 kbit/s
     ------------------------+-------------+-------------+---------------
     estimated        37 MiB |     644 MiB |     681 MiB |

See Traffic For Months, Enter:

# vnstat -m
Sample outputs:

 em1  /  monthly
       month        rx      |     tx      |    total    |   avg. rate
    ------------------------+-------------+-------------+---------------
      Aug '09      2.24 GiB |   42.50 GiB |   44.74 GiB |  140.13 kbit/s
      Sep '09      1.68 GiB |   37.86 GiB |   39.54 GiB |  127.96 kbit/s
      Oct '09      2.12 GiB |   48.09 GiB |   50.21 GiB |  157.27 kbit/s
      Nov '09      2.97 GiB |   56.38 GiB |   59.35 GiB |  192.06 kbit/s
      Dec '09     35.33 MiB |  604.59 MiB |  639.92 MiB |   64.72 kbit/s
    ------------------------+-------------+-------------+---------------
    estimated      1.13 GiB |   19.50 GiB |   20.63 GiB |

Other Options:

To display traffic for the last 24 hours, enter:
# vnstat -h
Display all time top10 traffic days, run:
# vnstat -t
To display traffic for 7 days, current and previous week, run:
# vnstat -w
To display current transfer rate for the selected interface in real time until interrupted. Statistics will be shown after interruption if runtime was more than 10 seconds, run:
# vnstat -l
Sample outputs:

Monitoring em1...    (press CTRL-C to stop)
   rx:       28 kbit/s    25 p/s          tx:      108 kbit/s    22 p/s
 em1   /  traffic statistics
                           rx         |       tx
--------------------------------------+------------------------
  bytes                      729 KiB  |        3.95 MiB
--------------------------------------+------------------------
          max             236 kbit/s  |     1.84 Mbit/s
      average           72.00 kbit/s  |   399.80 kbit/s
          min               8 kbit/s  |        8 kbit/s
--------------------------------------+------------------------
  packets                       4254  |            4424
--------------------------------------+------------------------
          max                130 p/s  |         185 p/s
      average                 52 p/s  |          54 p/s
          min                  8 p/s  |           8 p/s
--------------------------------------+------------------------
  time                  1.35 minutes
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