GIT – Definitions SYN attack : SYN flooding and SYN spoofing,  How to detect a SYN attack

1. Definitions: SYN flooding and SYN spoofing

A SYN flood is a type of Denial of Service attack. We can say that a victim host is under a SYN flooding attack when an attacker tries to create a huge amount of connections in the SYN RECEIVED state until the backlog queue has overflowed. The SYN RECEIVED state is created when the victim host receives a connection request (a packet with SYN flag set) and allocates for it some memory resources. A SYN flood attack creates so many half-open connections that the system becomes overwhelmed and cannot handle incoming requests any more.

To increase an effectiveness of a SYN flood attack, an attacker spoofs source IP addresses of SYN packets. In this case the victim host cannot finish the initialization process in a short time because the source IP address can be unreachable. This malicious operation is called a SYN spoofing attack.

We need to know that the process of creating a full connection takes some time. Initially, after receiving a connection request (a packet with SYN flag set), a victim host puts this half-open connection to the backlog queue and sends out the first response (a packet with SYN and ACK flags set). When the victim does not receive a response from a remote host, it tries to retransmit this SYN+ACK packet until it times out, and then finally removes this half-open connection from the backlog queue. In some operating systems this process for a single SYN request can take about 3 minutes! In this document you will learn how to change this behavior. The other important information you need to know is that the operating system can handle only a defined amount of half-open connections in the backlog queue. This amount is controlled by the size of the backlog queue. For instance, the default backlog size is 256 for RedHat 7.3 and 100 for 2000 Professional. When this size is reached, the system will no longer accept incoming connection requests.

2.How to detect a SYN attack

It is very simple to detect SYN attacks. The netstat shows us how many connections are currently in the half-open state. The half-open state is described as SYN_RECEIVED in Windows and as SYN_RECV in Unix systems.

# netstat -n -p TCP

tcp        0      0 10.100.0.200:21            237.177.154.8:25882     SYN_RECV    -
tcp        0      0 10.100.0.200:21            236.15.133.204:2577     SYN_RECV    -
tcp        0      0 10.100.0.200:21            127.160.6.129:51748     SYN_RECV    -
tcp        0      0 10.100.0.200:21            230.220.13.25:47393     SYN_RECV    -
tcp        0      0 10.100.0.200:21            227.200.204.182:60427   SYN_RECV    -
tcp        0      0 10.100.0.200:21            232.115.18.38:278       SYN_RECV    -
tcp        0      0 10.100.0.200:21            229.116.95.96:5122      SYN_RECV    -
tcp        0      0 10.100.0.200:21            236.219.139.207:49162   SYN_RECV    -
tcp        0      0 10.100.0.200:21            238.100.72.228:37899    SYN_RECV    -
...

We can also count how many half-open connections are in the backlog queue at the moment. In the example below, 769 connections (for TELNET) in the SYN RECEIVED state are kept in the backlog queue.

# netstat -n -p TCP | grep SYN_RECV | grep :23 | wc -l
769

The other method for detecting SYN attacks is to print TCP statistics and look at the TCP parameters which count dropped connection requests. While under attack, the values of these parameters grow rapidly.

In this example we watch the value of the TcpHalfOpenDrop parameter on a Sun machine.

# netstat -s -P tcp | grep tcpHalfOpenDrop
       tcpHalfOpenDrop     =   473

It is important to note that every TCP port has its own backlog queue, but only one variable of the TCP/IP stack controls the size of backlog queues for all ports.

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